Updates on Libyan war/Stop NATO news: November 6, 2011

6 November 2011 — Stop NATO

  • With Gunfire In Background, Libyan ‘Rebels’ Demand Salaries
  • U.S. AWACS Crew Returns From Greece After Gaddafi Killed
  • Between NATO Summits: Obama To Host Portuguese Counterpart
  • Germany: Pentagon Officials Inspect NATO Global Full-Spectrum Training
  • NATO Commander In Germany To Plan For Chicago Summit, ‘Future Operations’
  • Virginia: NATO Ambassadors Meet On Chicago Summit
  • 60 Percent Of Eurasia: SCO Facilitates Regional Peace, Development
  • SCO: Half Of Humanity, Counterbalance To U.S. And NATO
  • SCO Expanding From Regional To International Force
  • SCO: India, Pakistan To Become Full Members, Turkey Dialogue Partner, Afghanistan Observer

With Gunfire In Background, Libyan ‘Rebels’ Demand Salaries

http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/world/2011-11/06/c_131231282.htm

Xinhua News Agency
November 6, 2011

Hundreds of Libyan fighters demand salary from NTC

TRIPOLI: Hundreds of Libyan fighters protested outside a hotel in the capital Tripoli on Saturday evening, asking for salaries from the ruling National Transitional Council (NTC).

The NTC fighters who haven’t been paid since they took up arms in March gathered in front of Radison Blu hotel where NTC oil and finance chief Ali Tarhouni has his office. Sporadic gunfire was heard during their demonstration.

‘We need money to buy food for our family ahead of the Muslim Eid al-Adha holiday as food prices increased sharply compared with the same period last year,’ said Ahmed Hamaza, an NTC fighter.

====

U.S. AWACS Crew Returns From Greece After Gaddafi Killed

http://newsok.com/awacs-crew-welcomed-home-friday/article/3620181

NewsOK (Oklahoma)
November 5, 2011

AWACS crew welcomed home Friday
About 40 members of the 552nd Air Control Wing returned home Friday afternoon after spending two months supporting NATO operations in Libya
By Matt Patterson

About 40 members of the 552nd Air Control Wing returned home Friday afternoon to Tinker Air Force Base to the welcoming arms of their families.

The AWACS crew members had been deployed to Greece in support of NATO operations in Libya aimed at…removing Col. Moammar Gadhafi from power. With Gadhafi dead and the military role complete, the airmen were able to come home about four months early.

====

Between NATO Summits: Obama To Host Portuguese Counterpart

http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5hacsxapaLeCaZBO-nGbJFJDDtAGw?docId=CNG.304ee28a60a3232c039551a92c958268.01

Agence France-Presse
November 5, 2011

Obama to host Portugal’s Silva on Wednesday

WASHINGTON:US President Barack Obama will host his Portuguese counterpart Anibal Cavaco Silva at an Oval Office meeting this week, the White House announced Saturday.

‘The President welcomes the opportunity to reciprocate the warm hospitality that he received during his visit to Lisbon in November 2010,’ a statement said, noting that the meeting was set for Wednesday.

The United States and Portugal ‘are strong NATO allies and cooperate closely in the United Nations Security Council,’ the statement added. Portugal is currently serving as the council’s rotating president.

The discussions in Washington will include preparations for the 2012 NATO Summit to be held in Chicago, the boosting of economic ties, and US support for Portugal implementing its IMF-EU reform program.

Portugal has in recent months struggled to overhaul its troubled economy after this year receiving a 78-billion-euro ($107 million) bailout from the European Union and International Monetary Fund, which was conditioned on a tough austerity effort to be carried out over three years.

====

Germany: Pentagon Officials Inspect NATO Global Full-Spectrum Training

http://www.eucom.mil/article/22865/dignitaries-observe-coalition-training-efficiencies

U.S. European Command
November 1, 2011

Dignitaries observe coalition training, efficiencies
Denver Beaulieu-Hains, 7th Army Joint Multinational Training Command

-The Joint Multinational Training Command is the U.S. Army’s only forward-deployed training command suited to train U.S. and multinational forces because of its proximity to NATO and coalition allies in Europe, Asia and Africa. In part, Davidson’s portfolio is to examine global force posture.

-Since 2009, the JMTC has trained more than 12,000 troops annually. The JMTC trained more than 5,000 multinational Soldiers during Operational Mentor and Liaison Team, or OMLT training, while more than 600 international military students from 27 European countries have completed the Warrior Leader Course…

-During the complex training of friendly forces, the 173rd ABCT, with soldiers from Poland and Slovenia, faced a professional opposing force, augmented by Slovakian Soldiers equipped with tanks, helicopters and unmanned aerial systems. The coalition forces trained against both conventional and unconventional enemies…after parachuting into a remote and austere environment.

GRAFENWOEHR, Germany: Dr. Janine Davidson, the deputy assistant secretary of Defense for Plans, observed Europe’s Full-Spectrum Training Environment rotation, Oct. 20-22, during the final stages of training.

‘It’s an opportunity to really think about these facilities and the way we use them,’ Davidson said. ‘I really believe that if you are going to train the way you fight, you need to train with your allies. And so, it’s important to be here.’

The 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat team demonstrated force-on-force maneuvers as the distinguished visitors – including the defense minister of the Republic of Slovenia, a former Eastern Bloc country that contributed more than 500 soldiers to replicate the host-nation security force during the FSTE, and the secretary of Defense’s representative to NATO – watched cadre, observers, controllers and trainers conduct complex training scenarios at Hohenfels Training Area.

Davidson and dozens of distinguished visitors toured facilities and met with cadre, staff and trainers.

The Joint Multinational Training Command is the U.S. Army’s only forward-deployed training command suited to train U.S. and multinational forces because of its proximity to NATO and coalition allies in Europe, Asia and Africa. In part, Davidson’s portfolio is to examine global force posture. Her task is to examine the utility of forces in Europe at a time when everyone is concerned with reducing their budgets.

Since 2009, the JMTC has trained more than 12,000 troops annually. The JMTC trained more than 5,000 multinational Soldiers during Operational Mentor and Liaison Team, or OMLT training, while more than 600 international military students from 27 European countries have completed the Warrior Leader Course, the Army’s non-commissioned officer pre-requisite course.
Europe’s FSTE was the first training of this type to be conducted in the region.

Maj. Gen. James C. Boozer, U.S. Army Europe deputy commanding general and the exercise’s senior trainer said the relationships formed during this exercise, from the squad to the senior-command level is valuable, and ensures the Soldiers are among the best trained in the Army today.

‘The importance of this training, for our multinational partners and for the U.S. Army, cannot be overstated,’ said Boozer. ‘The value of having our Soldiers here training alongside and working with our European partners is immense. It cannot be replicated at any other training center. The relationships that are being formed during this exercise, from the squad leaders to the senior commanders, are invaluable and have proven their worth in the past.’

During the complex training of friendly forces, the 173rd ABCT, with soldiers from Poland and Slovenia, faced a professional opposing force, augmented by Slovakian Soldiers equipped with tanks, helicopters and unmanned aerial systems. The coalition forces trained against both conventional and unconventional enemies, including a realistic criminal element, after parachuting into a remote and austere environment.

The unit had to establish their fighting position, build-up fighting power, set-up communication and develop relationships with the host nation.

‘Leaders in Europe from sergeant to colonel are light years ahead of their peers,’ said Maj. Charles V. Slider, the executive officer of the Combined Arms Center-Training at Fort Leavenworth, Kan. ‘I’ve done two rotations at Joint Readiness Training Center at Fort Polk and one at the National Training Center and the amount of unified action between U.S. and host-nation forces – including the enemy and host-nation package is impressive.’

====

NATO Commander In Germany To Plan For Chicago Summit, ‘Future Operations’

http://www.act.nato.int/multimedia/archive/42-news-stories/779-sact-shares-his-vision-on-transformation-with-the-german-defence-committee

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Allied Command Transformation
October 31, 2011

SACT shares his vision on Transformation with the German Defence Committee

Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, French Air Force General Stephane Abrial, visited Germany and met with members of the German Defence Committee and the Committee on Foreign Affairs October 25 in Berlin.

General Abrial thanked the German representatives for the contribution made by German troops in Afghanistan and Kosovo. He also took the opportunity to ‘share his vision of the significant challenges facing ACT, especially in view of the Summit of NATO Heads of State and Government in Chicago in May 2012.’

A lively and useful discussion ensued touching on NATO’s most current issues: NATO’s analysis of current operations, especially in the context of national budget constraints, today’s threat analysis, cooperation with Partners, ‘multinationality’ and the way NATO prepares for future missions.

General Abrial pointed out that ‘multinational approaches by members of the Alliance are not new. This has already proven valuable, for example with regard to AWACS and strategic transport…’

While in Berlin, General Abrial had working sessions focussed on Smart Defence with Mr Stephane Beemelmans, Secretary of State in the German Ministry of Defence, General Volker Wieker, German Chief of Defence Staff and Dr. Christoph Heusgen, Foreign and Security Policy Advisor to the German Chancellor.

====

Virginia: NATO Ambassadors Meet On Chicago Summit

http://www.act.nato.int/multimedia/archive/42-news-stories/789-chicago-summit-the-focus-of-nato-ambassadors-visit

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Allied Command Transformation
November 4, 2011

Chicago Summit the focus of NATO Ambassadors’ visit

The 2012 NATO summit in Chicago was one of the main areas of discussion as ‘Permanent Representatives’ (PermReps) to NATO from seven member nations came to Allied Command Transformation (ACT) November 1 to participate in a series of high-level briefings and discussions.

In the opening session, Hungarian Army Colonel Janus Szonyegi of the Strategic Plans and Policy Division outlined ACT’s contribution to the Chicago Summit.

‘ACT has developed a support plan which will evolve over the coming months while the Alliance progresses towards the summit,’ said Szonyegi.

‘It presents an opportunity for ACT to highlight areas of transatlantic defence cooperation that epitomise the connectivity and outreach agenda of the strategic concept.’

The PermReps also received briefings on ‘Smart Defence’, Education and Training, Countering Improvised Explosive Devices, and Cyber Defence.

There was also a ‘command briefing’ from ACT Chief of Staff, Royal Navy Vice Admiral Robert Cooling, who presented an overview of ACT’s role within the wider Alliance.

‘We are very conscious of the necessity to hit the right balance between support for today’s operations and meeting the demands of tomorrow through deliberate, informed transformation, and engagement with others,’ said Cooling.

NATO Permanent Representatives – also called NATO Ambassadors – represent their nation on the North Atlantic Council. They are supported by a national delegation composed of advisers and officials who represent their nation on various NATO committees.

====

60 Percent Of Eurasia: SCO Facilitates Regional Peace, Development

http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2011-11/06/c_131231478.htm

Xinhua News Agency
November 6, 2011

SCO facilitates regional peace, development

-According to Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Cheng Guoping, the SCO, whose members cover 60 percent of the Eurasian landmass, has achieved deepened economic cooperation, identifying cooperative potential in the areas of finance, transportation, energy, agriculture and technology.
-According to Cheng, complicated and profound changes in the international and regional situation, as well as a possible downturn in the global economy, will create challenges for the development of SCO member states and also create higher demands for the SCO.

MOSCOW: After the 11th annual summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in Astana in June, the Russian city of St. Petersburg is gearing up for the upcoming 10th Meeting of Prime Ministers of the Member States of the SCO planned for Monday.

According to the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao will attend the meeting.

Prime ministers of other SCO member states, as well as representatives from SCO’s observer states of Mongolia, Pakistan, Iran and India will also attend the meeting.

The SCO, which groups China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, has been steadily promoted since its establishment in Shanghai in 2001.

Over the past decade, the SCO has been developing in the areas of security, economy and culture and has seen fruitful results in enhancing mutual trust and cooperation among member states.

Security cooperation among SCO member states is valued as one of the wheels of the organization…

SCO members have also staged successive joint drills to enhance the interoperability of their militaries and law enforcement agencies and deter potential troublemakers.

Besides security cooperation, economic cooperation is another top priority for SCO member states.

According to Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Cheng Guoping, the SCO, whose members cover 60 percent of the Eurasian landmass, has achieved deepened economic cooperation, identifying cooperative potential in the areas of finance, transportation, energy, agriculture and technology.

As a sign of the vitality in the SCO’s growing economic cooperation, China’s trade with other SCO members has shot up from 12.1 billion U.S. dollars to some 90 billion dollars during the past 10 years, recording a faster increase than China’s overall foreign trade, Cheng said.

The growing trade ties dovetail with the SCO’s ambitious integration endeavors to realize the free flow of goods, capital, services and technology by 2020.

Meanwhile, SCO members have also established the Business Council and the Interbank Association, two non-government organizations, to better promote and finance cooperation projects.

With regard to culture exchanges, people-to-people contacts have been more frequent among SCO member states and their relations have been strengthened.

Cheng said that cooperation in public health, culture, education and emergency relief has been vigorously carried out within the organization, which is considered as the axle-tree between the SCO’s two wheels of security and economic cooperation.

Diverse art festivals, youth festivals, exhibitions and forums have been carried out under the SCO framework, which have been consolidating the traditional friendship and win-win partnership within SCO member countries.

According to Cheng, complicated and profound changes in the international and regional situation, as well as a possible downturn in the global economy, will create challenges for the development of SCO member states and also create higher demands for the SCO.

Li Hui, the Chinese ambassador to Russia, echoed Cheng in an interview with Xinhua ahead of the 10th meeting of prime ministers of the SCO member states. Li said that China is willing to further coordinate and cooperate with other SCO member states to cope with the challenges.

Li raised three proposals: to persistently enhance political mutual trust in order to strengthen SCO’s capacity to deal with new challenges; to consolidate security cooperation to protect SCO member states from menaces; to further promote pragmatic cooperation in various fields, especially in the economic and trade field; to expand people-to-people contacts and culture exchanges.

At the upcoming gathering, Cheng said, leaders will review the organization’s development and cooperation over the past year, thoroughly analyze the current international and regional situations and make working plans for the SCO’s next phase of development.

This year marks the 10th anniversary of the SCO’s establishment. The SCO’s Astana summit in June celebrated the 10th anniversary by summing up its achievements and outlining its future direction.

====

SCO: Half Of Humanity, Counterbalance To U.S. And NATO

http://www.thenews.com.pk/TodaysPrintDetail.aspx?ID=76449&Cat=6

The News International
November 6, 2011

SCO – making itself relevant in regional and global contexts
Bassam Javed

-Since its inception, the organization has come a long way, wherein it is now given due importance by all regional and international organizations. As it happens with every upcoming organisation, it is confronted with many external and internal challenges as well. Externally, its security concepts run counter to that of Nato and the United States. The SCO believes in ‘non-alignment, non-confrontation and non-interference in the affairs of other countries’ by preferring to convince countries to solve their differences through peaceful means.
-Russia prefers the SCO to act as a security bloc in order to meet the security needs of its members arising out of an unstable Afghanistan and global military ambitions of the United States.
-The gas reserves of Russia, the Central Asian states and Iran comprise 50% of world’s reserves…
-With the incorporation of India and Pakistan, this unique organization will have four nuclear powers (two recognized and two yet to be recognized), a landscape full of energy resources and mineral wealth and accommodating half of the global community; it has all the ingredients to play a powerful role in world affairs to maintain a balance. The rise of SCO, both as a security group and as an economic entity, reflects the need of the SCO member countries to keep America and Nato away from interfering in their respective domains without challenging them directly.

The 10th Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) heads of governments meeting will take place on November 7 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The prime minister of Pakistan will participate in the meeting at the invitation of Russian Prime Minister Alexander Putin. The Organization, originally founded in 2001, has evolved into an effective mechanism over the years to enable its member states’ transaction on strategic regional issues and economic development. The issues confronting the region are too strategic to be solved by a single country without cooperation from others and hence the need for creation of SCO (originally known as Shanghai five) by China and Russia.

The last conference held on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of formation of the SCO was in Astana, Kazakhstan on July 15 of this year. The declaration issued at the end of the conference included an anti-drug strategy and action plan for the years 2011-2016, procedures and conditions for becoming SCO members and reports on the activities of SCO’s regional anti-terrorist organization during the last year.

Since its inception, the organization has come a long way, wherein it is now given due importance by all regional and international organizations. As it happens with every upcoming organisation, it is confronted with many external and internal challenges as well. Externally, its security concepts run counter to that of Nato and the United States. The SCO believes in ‘non-alignment, non-confrontation and non-interference in the affairs of other countries’ by preferring to convince countries to solve their differences through peaceful means.

The United States still relies on its military prowess to realize its own security and as well as that of its allies through military means. The SCO is working towards ending ‘cold war’ concepts and transcending ideologies, unlike the Americans who still follow them. Internally, while China prefers economic cooperation to be the main charter of the SCO, Russia prefers the SCO to act as a security bloc in order to meet the security needs of its members arising out of an unstable Afghanistan and global military ambitions of the United States.

Over the years the SCO has turned into a regional powerhouse, as the world is fast transforming from a uni-polar to multi-polar world. When compared with other regional organizations like Saarc, the SCO has gained more weight in the region. It has opened up to other countries of the region with Pakistan at the forefront of becoming a member. With Saarc’s limited progress in the development of the region and its member countries mainly due to Indian intransigence, hopes for the SCO have forced Pakistani policy makers to alter their focus towards the SCO alliance for more close cooperation with Central Asian States.

Pakistan had applied for full membership of the SCO in 2006, and Iran and India followed suit in 2007 and 2010 respectively. With an enlarged number of members the SCO will enable itself to play an effective role in the region sequel to US departure from Afghanistan. Since the Afghanistan quagmire can only be solved through a regional arrangement, the SCO can be the ideal platform, for it will confront an Afghanistan rife with terror and in-fighting between ethnic factions for creating their areas of influences as the US reaches its end-time in Afghanistan. The situation in Afghanistan has already started worsening and with US demands for five permanent bases after 2014 in Afghanistan will further aggravate not only the Afghan security situation but also that of the regional environment.

The perception of Central Asian states about Pakistan’s role in confronting the war on terror and extremism is extremely favorable. Most of these states have been appreciative of Pakistan’s role and the sacrifices that it has rendered in checking terrorism and extremism and have assured Pakistan of their full support in its quest for full member status in the SCO.

Pakistan for its part also cannot afford to ignore the size, population and markets of Central Asian states for its own development. Energy-starved Pakistan stands to gain a lot by becoming a full-fledged member of the grouping. The bilateral investments in the grouping, mainly in the energy sector, have surpassed a huge total of $15 billion. The gas reserves of Russia, the Central Asian states and Iran comprise 50% of world’s reserves and the immediate focus of the government is on the energy issue that has virtually stalled Pakistan’s economy.

Pakistan being the member of the SCO can fully realize the potentials of the organization in connecting Chinese and Central Asian member states with the Gulf countries and South Asia. For that purpose Pakistan has already offered its Gwadar Port and other land routes. Pakistan today is passing through a rough patch in its history as it strives to eliminate non-tolerance, terrorism and extremism from its very fabric. The SCO countries are also victims of terror phenomenon in one form or another and as such through collective efforts Pakistan can contribute tremendously in the organization’s efforts to eradicate these trends that threaten their security.

With the incorporation of India and Pakistan, this unique organization will have four nuclear powers (two recognized and two yet to be recognized), a landscape full of energy resources and mineral wealth and accommodating half of the global community; it has all the ingredients to play a powerful role in world affairs to maintain a balance. The rise of SCO, both as a security group and as an economic entity, reflects the need of the SCO member countries to keep America and Nato away from interfering in their respective domains without challenging them directly. This can only be done by enlarging the group that includes other important regional countries like Pakistan.

====

SCO Expanding From Regional To International Force

http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2011-11/05/c_131231253.htm

Xinhua News Agency
November 5, 2011

SCO enjoys rising international status: Chinese ambassador

-The SCO, founded in Shanghai on June 15, 2001, groups China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Currently, India, Iran, Mongolia and Pakistan are SCO observer states while Sri Lanka and Belarus are dialogue partners.
-SCO members have been top targets for China’s foreign investment projects. That’s as the trade volume between China and other SCO states has soared from 12 billion U.S. dollars to 90 billion over the past decade.
Meanwhile, China has promised to offer 12-billion-dollar preferential loans and has organized investment trips to other SCO countries, signing deals worth over 8 billion dollars.

MOSCOW: Withstanding various tests and challenges during the past 10 years, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization has started to enjoy thriving cooperation and rising international status, said Chinese ambassador to Russia Li Hui.

China will go on making joint efforts with other SCO members to contribute more to regional and world peace and development, Li said in an interview with Xinhua on the eve of the 10th SCO prime ministers meeting, which will begin on Sunday in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Li believes the SCO has become an indispensable constructive regional force, which has gained rich experience in maintaining regional security and stability, promoting prosperity in member states, and developing international relations.

He noted that more and more countries want to enhance their relations with the SCO and a growing number of international organizations hope to establish ties with it.

The SCO, founded in Shanghai on June 15, 2001, groups China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Currently, India, Iran, Mongolia and Pakistan are SCO observer states while Sri Lanka and Belarus are dialogue partners.

Li said the practical cooperation among SCO member states has seen progress and important achievements, including the improvement of SCO legal basis and cooperation mechanism, the launch of several big-scale regional economic and technical joint projects.

With the gradual deepening of economic cooperation, he added, SCO member countries would benefit more from cohesion, which should be further strengthened and help the members to withstand future global economic changes.

Li also noted that the SCO members, facing profound changes in the regional and global landscape, should continue upholding the Shanghai Spirit and boost cooperation in various fields.

The ambassador said the Chinese government will continue to firmly promote political, security, trade and cultural exchanges within the SCO framework.

‘China and other SCO members withstood tests of complex circumstances. During the cooperation we always insist upon equal consultation, mutual benefit and a win-win principle,’ Li said.

He pointed out that SCO members have been top targets for China’s foreign investment projects. That’s as the trade volume between China and other SCO states has soared from 12 billion U.S. dollars to 90 billion over the past decade.

Meanwhile, China has promised to offer 12-billion-dollar preferential loans and has organized investment trips to other SCO countries, signing deals worth over 8 billion dollars.

China has proposed to enhance regional cooperation in energy, transportation, electricity, telecommunications and infrastructure, Li said.

This year marks the 10th anniversary of the SCO’s establishment. Chinese President Hu Jintao attended the Astana summit in June and outlined priorities for SCO’s development over the next decade.

During the upcoming St. Petersburg SCO meeting, Li said, all sides would consider a number of major topics including the promotion of intra-SCO economic cooperation, and a boosting of the regional economy.

China believes that the six-member group should take more active measures to facilitate regional trade and investment and improve cooperation in non-resource areas.

The group, Li said, also should push forward the realization of infrastructure interoperability, as well as speeding up the diversification of financing channels.

Finally, Li said Premier Wen Jiabao’s visit to Russia will also strengthen China-Russia ties within the SCO framework and inject new impetus to regional stability and development.

====

SCO: India, Pakistan To Become Full Members, Turkey Dialogue Partner, Afghanistan Observer

http://www.todayszaman.com/news-261928-turkey-to-become-dialogue-partner-at-sco.html

Today’s Zaman
November 4, 2011

Turkey to become ‘dialogue partner’ at SCO

ANKARA: Turkey is expected to be elected as a dialogue partner at the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in a summit to be held in Russia’s St. Petersburg on Nov. 7.

The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has declared that it supports Turkey being given the status of ‘dialogue partner’ in the organization. In the same summit India and Pakistan are expected to get full membership, whereas Afghanistan is likely to be offered observer status. Ankara submitted its official application for admission as a ‘dialogue partner’ to the secretary-general of the SCO in April.

According to sources from the Turkish Foreign Ministry, Russia wants Turkey to be inside the SCO. And Ankara, which wants to develop multi-dimensional relations with the countries in Central Asia, and particularly with Russia, finds it important in view of its foreign policy to be in close cooperation with regional organizations.

Ankara is not expected to be represented in the summit in St. Petersburg with a high-level presence. The SCO, established in 2001 by Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, decided during its Astana summit in June, which brought together heads of state, to make further efforts at expansion by admitting new members.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.